Pharmaceutics. 2021 Mar 8;13(3):352. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13030352.
Antibiotic resistance is a significant crisis that threatens human health and safety worldwide. There is an urgent need for new strategies to control multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. The latest breakthrough in gene-editing tools based on CRISPR/Cas9 has potential application in combating MDR bacterial infections because of their high targeting ability to specifically disrupt the drug resistance genes that microbes use for infection or to kill the pathogen directly. Despite the potential that CRISPR/Cas9 showed, its further utilization has been hampered by undesirable delivery efficiency in vivo. Nanotechnology offers an alternative way to overcome the shortcomings of traditional delivery methods of therapeutic agents. Advances in nanotechnology can improve the efficacy and safety of CRISPR/Cas9 components by using customized nanoparticle delivery systems. The combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and nanotechnology has the potential to open new avenues in the therapy of MDR bacterial infections. This review describes the recent advances related to CRISPR/Cas9 and nanoparticles for antimicrobial therapy and gene delivery, including the improvement in the packaging and localizing efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 components in the NP (nanoparticle)/CRISPR system. We pay particular attention to the strengths and limitations of the nanotechnology-based CRISPR/Cas9 delivery system to fight nosocomial pathogens.We highlight the need for more scientific research to explore the combinatorial efficacy of various nanoparticles and CRISPR technology to control and prevent antimicrobial resistance.