Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 8;11(1):14170. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93529-6.
Nontyphoidal Salmonella, an important zoonotic pathogen and a major cause of foodborne illnesses, could be a potential reservoir of plasmids harbouring mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr). This study reported, for the first time, a high rate of mcr-carrying Salmonella clinical isolates (3.3%, 24/724) in Thailand, associated with mcr-3 gene (3.0%, 22/724) in S. 4,,12:i:-(15.4%, 4/26), S. Typhimurium (8.8%, 5/57), and S. Choleraesuis (5.6%, 13/231). Remarkably, the increasing trends of colistin and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistances have displayed a high agreement over the years, with a dramatic rise in the mcr-carrying Salmonella from 1.1% (6/563) during 2005-2007 to 11.2% (18/161) during 2014-2018 when CTX-M-55 became abundant. Clonal and plasmid analysis revealed that the self-transferable IncA/C and a novel hybrid IncA/C-FIIs MDR plasmids were the major vehicles to disseminate both mcr-3 and blaCTX-M55 genes among diverse Salmonella strains, from as early as 2007. To our knowledge the occurrence of mcr-3 and the co-existence of it with blaCTX-M-55 in S. Choleraesuis are reported here for the first time, leading to clinical concern over the treatment of the invasive salmonellosis. This study provides evidence of the potential reservoirs and vectors in the dissemination of the mcr and highlights the co-selection by colistin and/or cephalosporins.