Opportunistic Infections among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Coastal City of South India.

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Opportunistic Infections among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Coastal City of South India.

PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0136280

Authors: Indira P, Kumar PM, Shalini S, Vaman K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS and Diabetes Mellitus are the diseases' known to supress cell mediated immunity and predispose patients for opportunistic infections. Hence, we conducted a study to compare the common opportunistic infections (OIs) between People Living with HIV with DM (PLHIV-DM) and PLHIV without DM (PLHIV).
METHODOLOGY: PLHIV with DM and without DM (1:1) were prospectively included in the study from January 2011 to January 2012 at a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore city. Patients were classified as Diabetic if their fasting plasma glucose was ≥ 7.0mmol/l (126mg/dl) or 2-h plasma glucose was ≥11.1mmol/l (200mg/dl). Standard procedures and techniques were followed for diagnosis of OIs as per WHO guidelines. The data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5.
FINDINGS: The study included 37 PLHIV with DM and 37 PLHIV without DM and both groups were treated with Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). The median age was 47 years (IQR: 41-55years) for PLHIV-DM as compared to 40 years (IQR: 35-45.5 years) for PLHIV (p<0.0001). PLHIV-DM had median CD4 counts of 245 (IQR: 148-348) cells/μl compared to 150(IQR: 70-278) cells/μl for PLHIV (p = 0.02). Common OIs included oral candidiasis (49% of PLHIV-DM and 35% of PLHIV); Cryptococcal meningitis (19% of PLHIV-DM and 16% of PLHIV); Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (5% of PLHIV-DM and 18% of PLHIV); extra pulmonary tuberculosis (22% of PLHIV-DM and 34.5% of PLHIV); and Cerebral toxoplasmosis (11% of PLHIV-DM and 13.5% of PLHIV). Microbiological testing of samples from PLHIV- DM, C krusei was the most common Candida species isolated from 9 out of 18 samples. Out of six pulmonary TB samples cultured, four grew Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) and two Mycobacterium tuberculosis complexes.
CONCLUSIONS: Study did not identify any significant difference in profile of opportunistic infections (OIs) between PLHIV with and without Diabetes.

PMID: 26287949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]