Optimizing therapy of bloodstream infection due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

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Optimizing therapy of bloodstream infection due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

Curr Opin Crit Care. 2019 Jul 31;:

Authors: Gudiol C, Cuervo G, Carratalà J

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are increasing worldwide. Carbapenems are usually regarded as the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of serious ESBL infections. However, because of the alarming emergence or carbapenem resistance, interest in effective alternatives has emerged. The present review summarizes the findings published on the antibiotics currently available for treatment of patients with an ESBL-E bloodstream infection (BSI).
RECENT FINDINGS: Meropenem and imipenem are the drugs recommended for treatment of ESBL BSIs in critically ill patients, and in infections with high bacterial loads or elevated β-lactam minimum inhibitory concentrations. Ertapenem should be reserved for patients with less severe presentations, and should be used at high doses. In milder presentations or BSIs from low-risk sources, other carbapenem-sparing alternatives could be considered: cephamycins, fluoroquinolones, and particularly a β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor combination (particularly piperacillin/tazobactam). Optimized dosing of piperacillin/tazobactam is recommended (high doses and extended infusion). There are few data on the use of the promising newly available drugs (e.g. ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, cefiderocol, and plazomicin), and it seems reasonable to reserve them as last-resort drugs.
SUMMARY: Carbapenems should be used in patients with serious infections; alternatives could be used individually, particularly for definitive treatment of patients with milder presentations.

PMID: 31369411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]