Dis Mon. 2021 Feb 24:101169. doi: 10.1016/j.disamonth.2021.101169. Online ahead of print.
Human immunodeficiency virus has plagued mankind since the 1980's when the first case was documented. Human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunocompromised state can lead to several systemic and local manifestations, which often culminates in mortality. Oral candidiasis was one of the most prevalent opportunistic infections noted in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to a significant reduction in both the mortality and the morbidity of infected patients. The combined antiretroviral therapy has also led to a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections including oral candidiasis. Thus, the presence of well-established oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy could be considered as an indicator of potential treatment failure. The present manuscript aims to review the published literature assessing the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.