Oral health status and treatment needs among HIV/AIDS patients attending antiretroviral therapy center in Western India: A cross-sectional study.

Oral health status and treatment needs among HIV/AIDS patients attending antiretroviral therapy center in Western India: A cross-sectional study.

J Family Med Prim Care. 2020 Jul;9(7):3722-3728

Authors: Chaudhary P, Manral K, Gupta R, Bengani AKS, Chauhan BI, Arora D

Abstract
Aims and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a major public health problem across the globe. Among 37.9 million people are living with HIV in the world and 21.40 lakh are in India itself. The aim of this study was to assess the oral mucosal, periodontal, and dentition status of HIV/AIDS patients attending ART (antiretroviral therapy) center in Jaipur city, India.
Methods and Materials: A total of 588 HIV/AIDS subjects at the ART center in Jaipur city were examined. Oral mucosal, periodontal, and dentition status was recorded using a modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form 1997. A pilot study was conducted among 50 patients. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20.0. The statistical tests that were applied for the analysis included Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: Of 588 study subjects examined, 65.6% were men and 34.4% were women. Candidiasis was the most prevalent oral lesion (32.5%) followed by acute necrotizing gingivitis (26%), hyper melanotic pigmentation (15.8%), and ulcerations (8.7%), respectively. Oral hairy leukoplakia was observed in only 3.9% and not a single case of Kaposi's sarcoma was reported. Buccal mucosa (36.7%) was the most common site of the presence of oral mucosal lesions. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) score was 4.03 ± 1.54. Almost all the subjects needed one or other form of dental treatment. Only 12% of the patients had healthy periodontium.
Conclusion: Candidiasis was the most prevalent oral lesion. Efforts should be made to meet the increased treatment needs in these patients.

PMID: 33102357 [PubMed]