Microb Drug Resist. 2021 Apr 9. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2020.0395. Online ahead of print.
A clinically isolated pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (ST11), KPN142 was subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Genomic sequence of KPN142 showed that limited antibiotic resistances (β-lactams [blashv-11], sulfonamides [sul1 and dfrA22], bacitracin [bacA], tetracycline [tet34], aminoglycosides [ksgA, kdpE, aph(3)Ia, aac(3)III, and ant(3)Ia], and chloramphenicol [catA1]) were mediated by enzymes, and efflux pumps contributed most to pan resistance. Five types of multidrug resistance efflux pump families were identified, including the resistance nodulation division superfamily (AcrAB-TolC, AcrD, MdtABC, and KexD), the ATP-binding cascade superfamily (MacAB), the small multidrug resistance family (KpnEF), the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family (KdeA), and the major facilitator superfamily (EmrAB). There was an AcrAB-TolC efflux pump system, and inhibitory regulatory gene acrR and ramR of system carried deletion mutation, which lead to overexpression of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump, and in turn plays key role in the pan resistance of KPN142. Moreover, we did not find mgrb, a suppressor in the expression of phoPQ, overexpression of which may confer the resistance of KPN142 to colistin B. In addition, K. pneumoniae KPN142 carries IS1, IS3, and IntI1, which means that KPN142 is able to transfer drug-resistance genes. Of note, we detected the overexpression of acrB, ramA, phoP, and phoQ by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and carbonyl cyanide chlorophenylhydrazone was able to reverse the resistance patterns of K. pneumoniae KPN142. In conclusion, we consider that the overexpression of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump mediates the resistance to most common clinical antimicrobial agents, and the overexpression of phoPQ mediates the resistance to colistin B in K. pneumoniae KPN142.