Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 8;11(1):5444. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-84794-6.
Green synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as a new and promising alternative to overcome the drug resistance problem. Peculiar nano-specific features of palladium NPs (Pd-NPs) offer invaluable possibilities for clinical treatment. Due to the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in pathogenic bacteria and the prevalence of cancers, use of algae-mediated Pd-NPs could be a prospective substitute. Therefore, Pd-NPs were synthesized by a one-step, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly green method using the extract from a brown alga, Padina boryana (PB-extract), and evaluated for their antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anticancer activities. Pd-NPs were physicochemically characterized for size, shape, morphology, surface area, charge, atomic composition, crystal structure, and capping of Pd-NPs by PB-extract biomolecules by various techniques. The data revealed crystalline Pd-NPs with an average diameter of 8.7 nm, crystal size/structure of 11.16 nm/face-centered cubic, lattice d-spacing of 0.226 nm, 28.31% as atomic percentage, surface area of 16.1 m2/g, hydrodynamic size of 48 nm, and zeta-potential of - 28.7 ± 1.6 mV. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis revealed the role of PB-extract in capping of Pd-NPs by various functional groups such as -OH, C=C, C-O, and C-N from phenols, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic rings, and aliphatic amine. Out of 31, 23 compounds were found involved in biosynthesis by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Isolated strains were identified as MDR Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia fergusonii, Acinetobacter pittii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas enteropelogenes, and Proteus mirabilis and Pd-NPs exhibited strong antibacterial/antibiofilm activities against them with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 62.5-125 μg/mL. Moreover, cell viability assays showed concentration-dependent anti-proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Pd-NPs also enhanced mRNA expression of apoptotic marker genes in the order: p53 (5.5-folds) > bax (3.5-folds) > caspase-3 (3-folds) > caspase-9 (2-folds) at 125 μg/mL. This study suggested the possible role of PB-extract capped Pd-NPs for successful clinical management of MDR pathogens and breast cancer cells.