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Infection prevention in neonatal intensive care units

This article focuses on particular aspects of infection prevention concerning the treatment of high-risk neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Furthermore, some aspects regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevention and management in this setting are included. In addition we emphasize the important role of antibiotic stewardship in the NICU.

Choosing which metrics to use when reporting antimicrobial use information to veterinarians in the Canadian swine industry

The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences for various metrics and denominators among Canadian swine veterinarians, in order to improve reporting of antimicrobial use (AMU) information to these stakeholders and to facilitate enhanced stewardship decisions. An online survey was made available to swine veterinarians across Canada; 12 responses (estimated response rate 17.6%) were submitted and analyzed. Responses represented veterinarians from every major pig-producing province and…

Choosing which metrics to use when reporting antimicrobial use information to veterinarians in the Canadian swine industry

The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences for various metrics and denominators among Canadian swine veterinarians, in order to improve reporting of antimicrobial use (AMU) information to these stakeholders and to facilitate enhanced stewardship decisions. An online survey was made available to swine veterinarians across Canada; 12 responses (estimated response rate 17.6%) were submitted and analyzed. Responses represented veterinarians from every major pig-producing province and…

Staphylococcus aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Study of Bacterio-Epidemiological Profile and Virulence Factors

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) represents a major cause of nosocomial infections in the intensive care units in which Staphylococcus aureus is frequently involved. Better knowledge of this pathogen is required in order to enhance the patient’s treatment and care. In this article, we studied the bacteriological profile and virulence factors of S. aureus-related VAP on a 3-year period. We included a collection of S. aureus strains (n = 35) isolated from respiratory samples from patients…

Molecular Epidemiology of Clinical and Colonizing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Isolates in Companion Animals

In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) clinical and colonizing isolates of dogs and cats to profile contributing factors associated with their isolation. Nasal and rectal samples were collected from dogs and cats between 2015 and 2017 to identify colonizing isolates. Clinical isolates collected between 2003 and 2016 were retrieved from a Queensland…

Competence Mining of Vancomycin (VAN) in the Management of Infections Due to Bacterial Strains With High VAN Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs): A Novel Dosing Strategy Based on Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling

The increasing emergence of bacterial strains with high VAN MICs (BS (H) (-) (V) (AN-) (M) ), such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus bovis, results in growing concern that VAN is not effective against these isolates. Due to the limited data on VAN against BS (H-VAN-M) and the application limits of drugs currently considered to be effective for BS (H-VAN-M) , exploration of «new usages for old drugs» is reasonable…

JD419, a Staphylococcus aureus Phage With a Unique Morphology and Broad Host Range

Phage therapy represents a possible treatment option to cure infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, including methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, to which most antibiotics have become ineffective. In the present study, we report the isolation and complete characterization of a novel phage named JD219 exhibiting a broad host range able to infect 61 of 138 clinical strains of S. aureus tested, which included MRSA strains as well. The phage JD419 exhibits a…

A Study of the Chemistries, Growth Mechanisms, and Antibacterial Properties of Cerium- and Yttrium-Containing Nanoparticles

Under the current climate, physicians prescribe antibiotics for treating bacterial infections, and such a limitation to a single class of drugs is disadvantageous since antibiotic-resistant bacteria have adapted to withstanding their stresses. Antibiotic alternatives are sought, and herein metal nanoparticles comprised of the rare earth elements cerium and yttrium were determined to invoke toxicity on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and a multi-drug-resistant strain of…

Activity of Biodegradable Polymeric Nanosponges against Dual-Species Bacterial Biofilms

Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria present an emerging global health crisis, and the threat is intensified by the involvement of biofilms. Some biofilm infections involve more than one species; this can further challenge treatment using traditional antibiotics. Nanomaterials are being developed as alternative therapeutics to traditional antibiotics; here we report biodegradable polymer-stabilized oil-in-water nanosponges (BNS) and show their activity against dual-species…

Multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in older children and adults with diarrhea in Bangladesh: epidemiology and risk factors

CONCLUSIONS: MDR enteric pathogens were common in this study population with clinical, historical, and socio-environmental risk factors associated with MDROs. These findings may help guide clinical decision-making regarding antibiotic use and selection in patients at greatest risk of complications due to MDROs. Further prospective research is urgently needed to determine what additional factors place patients at greatest risk of MDRO, and the best strategies to mitigate the spread of MDR in…