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Valproic Acid and Breast Cancer: State of the Art in 2021

Valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid, VPA) is a short-chain fatty acid, a member of the group of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs). VPA has been successfully used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia for over 50 years. Numerous in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical studies suggest that this well-known anticonvulsant drug significantly inhibits cancer cell proliferation by modulating multiple signaling pathways. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy…

Evaluation of GeneXpert PA assay compared to genomic and (semi-)quantitative culture methods for direct detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in endotracheal aspirates

CONCLUSION: This first evaluation of the GeneXpert PA assay with ETA samples found it to be as sensitive and specific as the routine, hospital-based semi-quantitative culture method. Additionally, the GeneXpert PA assay is easy to perform (hands-on time ≈ 5 min) and rapid (≈ 55 min assay time). The combination of the high sensitivity and high specificity together with the rapid acquisition of results makes the GeneXpert PA assay a highly recommended screening technique. Where this equipment is…

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated juvenile osteomyelitis of mandible: a rare variant

Mandibular osteomyelitis in paediatric population presents as painful swelling with progressive trismus. Often the aetiology for this form of progressive osteomyelitis is inconclusive. The infective aetiology in this condition is difficult to assign as bone tissue culture is found to be seldom positive. We present a case of an 11-year-old girl, with hearing and speech impairment, who presented with report of painful right-sided mandibular swelling with progressive trismus. Clinical, radiographic…

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Properties of Highly Cross-Linked pH-Sensitive Hydrogels through Gamma Radiation

The design of new polymeric systems for antimicrobial drug release focused on medical/surgical procedures is of great interest in the biomedical area due to the high prevalence of bacterial infections in patients with wounds or burns. For this reason, in this work, we present a new design of pH-sensitive hydrogels copolymerized by a graft polymerization method (gamma rays), intended for localized prophylactic release of ciprofloxacin and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for potential topical…

Bioguided Isolation of Active Compounds from Rhamnus alaternus against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Panton-Valentine Leucocidin Positive Strains (MSSA-PVL)

Despite intensified efforts to develop an effective antibiotic, S. aureus is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The multidrug resistance of bacteria has considerably increased the difficulties of scientific research and the concomitant emergence of resistance is to be expected. In this study we have investigated the in vitro activity of 15 ethanol extracts prepared from Moroccan medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of skin infections. Among the tested species…

Enhancement of Biological and Pharmacological Properties of an Encapsulated Polyphenol: Curcumin

There is a dearth of natural remedies available for the treatment of an increasing number of diseases facing mankind. Natural products may provide an opportunity to produce formulations and therapeutic solutions to address this shortage. Curcumin (CUR), diferuloylmethane; I,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione is the major pigment in turmeric powder which has been reported to exhibit a number of health benefits including, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-cancer,…

Aspochalasin H1: A New Cyclic Aspochalasin from Hawaiian Plant-Associated Endophytic Fungus <em>Aspergillus</em> sp. FT1307

Aspergillus is one of the most diverse genera, and it is chemically profound and known to produce many biologically active secondary metabolites. In the present study, a new aspochalasin H1 (1), together with nine known compounds (2-10), were isolated from a Hawaiian plant-associated endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. FT1307. The structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (¹H, ¹H-¹H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, ROESY and 1D NOE), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass…

In Silico Characterization of the Interaction between the PBP2a «Decoy» Protein of Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the Monomeric Units of Eudragit E-100 and Poly(Maleic Acid-alt-Octadecene) Polymers

Antimicrobial treatment alternatives for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasingly limited. MRSA strains are resistant to methicillin due to the formation of β-lactamase enzymes, as well as the acquisition of the mecA gene, which encodes the penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a) that reduces the affinity for β-lactam drugs. Previous studies have shown that the use of ampicillin-loaded nanoparticles can improve antimicrobial activity on resistant S. aureus strains. However,…

Antibiotic Prophylaxis or Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Support in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

We compare, in this manuscript, antibiotic prophylaxis versus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) support as anti-infective strategies, in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), undergoing high-dose therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT). At our institution, antibiotic prophylaxis after HDT/ASCT in MM was stopped in January 2017 and replaced by G-CSF support in March 2017. Consecutive MM patients who received HDT/ASCT between March 2016 and July 2018 were…