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Relationships between relative expression of RND efflux pump genes, H33342 efflux activity, biofilm-forming activity, and antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates

Various mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported. There exists controversy regarding the relationships between efflux pump activity, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii. In this study, we investigated the relative expression of RND efflux pump genes, H33342 efflux activity, and biofilm-forming activity in 120 A. baumannii clinical isolates, examined their potential relationships with one another, and then…

Social determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: A scoping review and research gaps

Tuberculosis is a prime example of a social disease that requires social, economic and environmental interventions. However, research on social determinants of Multidrug-Resistant (MDR-TB) is limited. The five-stage scoping review showed the most common association of MDR-TB with multidimensional poverty (income, nutrition, education and social support) both as a contributing factor and a consequence of it. The review also found that physical environment (inadequate housing, overcrowding, poor…

Genitourinary non-tuberculous mycobacterial (GU-NTM) infections: A single institution experience in South India

CONCLUSIONS: GU-MTB and GU-NTM infections are indistinguishable from their clinical presentation and imaging studies. All cases of suspected genitourinary mycobacterial infections must be subjected to nucleic acid testing. Treatments based on clinical and radiological features without culture studies may misdiagnose GU-NTM infections as MDR GU-MTB, thereby delaying the appropriate treatment.

Understanding the gaps in elimination of tuberculosis in India

Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious disease, and it has the highest global burden on India with 21% prevalence rate and 27% of patients who do not receive pertinent medical treatment. Although India spends 23 billion dollars annually towards medical expenses for TB, India still ranks among the top 2 countries with the highest incidence and prevalence rates with more than 300,000 deaths excluding the patients with HIV and TB calling for prompt consideration. India faces a great challenge…

A study of multidrug resistant tuberculosis among symptomatic household contacts of MDR-TB patients

CONCLUSION: The high case detection rate by screening symptomatic household contacts shows MDR-TB is highly transmissible and household contacts are at a higher risk of developing active disease. It provides an opportunity for early diagnosis, adequate treatment, and interrupt the chain of transmission. Identifying risk factors help prevent the progression of latent TB infection to active disease.

Feasibility of De-Escalation Implementation for Positive Blood Cultures in Patients With Sepsis: A Prospective Cohort Study

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine whether de-escalation guided by blood cultures for patients with a diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock reduces mortality, and antimicrobial drug resistance (ADR). Methods: A prospective, single-center, cohort study was conducted with adults admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock at a public hospital in Sorocaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2013 to December 2013. We excluded…