Patient specific risk stratification for antimicrobial resistance and possible treatment strategies in gram-negative bacterial infections.

Patient specific risk stratification for antimicrobial resistance and possible treatment strategies in gram-negative bacterial infections.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016 Oct 21;

Authors: Bassetti M, Carnelutti A, Peghin M

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The isolation of multi-drug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) pathogens has progressively increased worldwide and has been associated with important delays in the prescription of an adequate antibiotic treatment, resulting in increased mortality rates. Patient's stratification for MDRGN infections to optimize the prescription of an adequate empiric antimicrobial regimen is crucial. Areas covered: This article covers MDRGN epidemiology, with a specific focus on risk factors for harbouring infections sustained by extended-spectrum-Beta-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacae (CRE), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MDR Acinetobacter baumanii. Moreover, we will propose an algorithm for the choice of empiric treatment when a MDRGN infection is suspected. Expert commentary: Although in clinical practice, a patient's stratification represents a challenge, whenever a MDRGN pathogen is suspected broad-spectrum, combination empiric treatment should be promptly started, looking for a balance between the prescription of an adequate empiric treatment and the risk of resistance selection.

PMID: 27766913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]