Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Single and 24-Hour Antibiotic Dosages are Equally Effective at Preventing Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Total Joint Arthroplasty

J Arthroplasty. 2021 Feb 19:S0883-5403(21)00197-2. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2021.02.037. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is used to prevent surgical site infection and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Secondary to a national shortage of cefazolin, patients at our institution began receiving a single preoperative prophylactic antibiotic dose for primary TJA and no 24-hour postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of single-dose antibiotic use versus 24-hour dosing of prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of acute PJI and short-term complications after primary TJA.

METHODS: A retrospective review of 3317 patients undergoing primary TJA performed from January 2015 to December 2019 identified 554 patients who received a single dose of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis during the antibiotic shortage and 2763 patients who received post-TJA 24-hour antibiotic prophylaxis before the shortage. Patient records were evaluated for acute PJI, superficial infection, 90-day reoperation, and 90-day complications.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between single-dose and 24-hour antibiotic groups. Similarly, there were no significant differences in rates of acute PJI (0.7% vs 0.2%; P = .301), superficial infection (2.4% vs 1.4%; P = .221), 90-day reoperation (2.1% vs 1.1%; P = .155), and 90-day complications (9.9% vs 7.9%; P = .169) between single and 24-hour antibiotic dose. Post hoc power analysis demonstrated adequate sample size, beta = 93%.

CONCLUSION: Single-dose prophylactic antibiotics did not lead to an increased risk of acute PJI or short-term complications after TJA. Our study suggests that administration of a single antibiotic dose may be safely considered in patients undergoing routine primary TJA.

PMID:33712358 | DOI:10.1016/j.arth.2021.02.037