Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Gordonia bronchialis: first pediatric report

Pediatr Nephrol. 2021 Oct 11:1-4. doi: 10.1007/s00467-021-05313-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Gordonia species, aerobic, weakly acid-fast, Gram-positive bacilli, are a rare cause of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). We report the first pediatric case of PD-related peritonitis caused by Gordonia bronchialis.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old girl with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D, on continuous cycling PD (CCPD) for 8 years, presented with cloudy PD effluent, with no abdominal discomfort or fever. Intra-peritoneal (IP) loading doses of vancomycin and ceftazidime were started at home after obtaining a PD effluent sample, which showed WBC 2,340 × 10 /L (59% neutrophils) and Gram-positive bacilli. On admission, she was clinically well and afebrile, with no history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, so vancomycin was discontinued, and IP ceftazidime and cefazolin were started, following a loading dose of intravenous cefazolin. Gordonia species grew after 5 days of incubation and later identified as Gordonia bronchialis. IP vancomycin was restarted as monotherapy, empirically for a total of 3 weeks therapy. A 2-week course of oral ciprofloxacin was added, based on susceptibility testing. PD catheter replacement was advised due to the risk of recurrence but was refused. A relapse occurred 16 days after discontinuing antibiotics, successfully treated with a 2-week course of IP ceftazidime and vancomycin. The PD catheter was removed and hemodialysis initiated. She received a further 2-week course of oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate post PD catheter removal.

CONCLUSIONS: Gordonia bronchialis is an emerging pathogen in PD peritonitis and appears to be associated with a high risk of relapse. PD catheter replacement is strongly suggested.

PMID:34633526 | PMC:PMC8503381 | DOI:10.1007/s00467-021-05313-3