Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Intravenous and Inhaled Caspofungin.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2020 Sep 24;:
Authors: Yu IG, O'Brien SE, Ryckman DM
Background: Aspergillosis is a serious fungal lung infection caused by Aspergillus spp. and is often fatal in immunocompromised patients. Current antifungal drug treatment and delivery results in modest efficacy in these patients may be due to low drug distribution to the lung. A comparison of intravenous (IV) caspofungin and lung-targeted inhaled caspofungin was conducted in rats. The goal was to determine the concentrations of drug at the site of infection and systemic distribution that leads to toxicity. This was performed to understand the difference in the in vitro activity of caspofungin and modest in vivo efficacy. Methods: Caspofungin was delivered to rats through IV injection and nose-only inhalation. Each cohort received a single 2 mg/kg dose of drug. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and drug levels were compared. Results: The lung drug level was above the minimum effective concentration for 168 hours in the inhaled group but <24 hours in the IV cohort. The lung Cmax and area under curve (AUC) in the inhaled group was 20 times higher than in the IV group. Lung-targeted delivery doubled lung drug half-life compared with IV delivery. Systemic distribution to the liver and kidney was 45% lower for the inhaled cohort than the IV group of animals. Conclusions: Based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic indices, lung-targeted inhaled caspofungin is likely to provide an improved therapeutic benefit without any increase in systemic toxicities. Furthermore, inhaled delivery supports a weekly dosing regimen instead of daily IV dosing.
PMID: 32985935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]