Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2020;155(5):332-339. doi: 10.1254/fpj.20013.
Tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agent, is a protein synthesis inhibitor that acts on bacterial ribosomes to inhibit initiation of translation. Tedizolid phosphate, a prodrug of tedizolid, is rapidly converted to the active form of tedizolid by phosphatase after administration. Tedizolid has antimicrobial activity mainly against gram-positive pathogens, and generally shows 4-8 times stronger in vitro activity than linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibacterial agent. Tedizolid has antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) regardless of being methicillin-resistant or susceptible, with 90% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) ranging from 0.25-0.5 μg/mL. Although antimicrobial activity of tedizolid against linezolid-resistant S. aureus (LRSA) is generally reduced, tedizolid is still active to LRSA whose linezolid resistance is caused by cfr gene. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that the C-5 hydroxymethyl group, the C-ring pyridine, and the D-ring tetrazole group of tedizolid are associated with enhanced antimicrobial activity of tedizolid and its antimicrobial activity against linezolid-resistant bacteria by the cfr gene. Frequency of spontaneous resistance mutation to tedizolid is low, and about 16-fold lower than that to linezolid. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameter most related to the efficacy of tedizolid is the area under free drug concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC/MIC), and fAUC/MIC value required for bacteriostasis under immunocompetent conditions was calculated to be three. Phase III studies of tedizolid phosphate were conducted in Japan and overseas countries and demonstrated its efficacy and safety in patients with skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram positive organisms including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).