Phylogenetic analysis of resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam and carbapenems in piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.

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Phylogenetic analysis of resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam and carbapenems in piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2019 Mar 01;:

Authors: Zamudio R, Hijazi K, Joshi C, Aitken E, Oggioni MR, Gould IM

Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important pathogens in cystic fibrosis. In this study we analysed the genetic basis and phylogenetic profile of resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam as well as carbapenems in cystic fibrosis P. aeruginosa isolates. We conducted whole genome sequence analysis of a collection of isolates resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam from seven hospitals in Scotland since the introduction of these two cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Ceftazidime resistance was primarily related to AmpC induction, as tested by cloxacillin inhibition assays, while amino acid variations in AmpC were associated with high-level ceftazidime resistance not reversed by cloxacillin. Only isolates resistant to both ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam carried AmpD mutations, likely resulting in ampC overexpression. All isolates resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam and/or ceftolozane/tazobactam were resistant to carbapenems and showed inactivating mutations in the chromosomal oprD gene. None of the isolates bore class A, B, D plasmid-encoded carbapenemases. Critically, we show that mutational resistance emerged in phylogenetically distant lineages suggesting that the mutations occur independently without conferring a selective advantage to any phylogenetic lineage. Our findings confirm the strong contribution of mutation-driven evolution to the population structure of P. aeruginosa.

PMID: 30831233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]