Plasmid-mediated resistance is going wild.
Plasmid. 2018 Sep 20;:
Authors: Dolejska M, Papagiannitsis CC
Multidrug resistance (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been increasingly reported in humans, companion animals and farm animals. The growing trend of plasmid-mediated resistance to antimicrobial classes of critical importance is attributed to the emergence of epidemic plasmids, rapidly disseminating resistance genes among the members of Enterobacteriaceae family. The use of antibiotics to treat humans and animals has had a significant impact on the environment and on wild animals living and feeding in human-influenced habitats. Wildlife can acquire MDR bacteria selected in hospitals, community or livestock from diverse sources, including wastewater, sewage systems, landfills, farm facilities or agriculture fields. Therefore, wild animals are considered indicators of environmental pollution by antibiotic resistant bacteria, but they can also act as reservoirs and vectors spreading antibiotic resistance across the globe. The level of resistance and reported plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms observed in bacteria of wildlife origin seem to correlate well with the situation described in humans and domestic animals. Additionaly, the identification of epidemic plasmids in samples from different human, animal and wildlife sources underlines the role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of resistance genes. The present review focuses on reports of plasmid-mediated resistance to critically important antimicrobial classes such as broad-spectrum beta-lactams and colistin in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from samples of wildlife origin. The role of plasmids in the dissemination of ESBL-, AmpC- and carbapenemase-encoding genes as well as plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants in wildlife will be discussed, and their similarities with plasmids previously identified in samples of human clinical or livestock origin will be highlighted. Furthermore, we will present features of completely sequenced plasmids reported from wildlife Enterobacteriaceae isolates, with special focus on genes that could be associated with the plasticity and stable maintenance of these molecules in antibiotic-free environments.
PMID: 30243983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]