J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Oct 19;23:197-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.08.024. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was performed to compare polymyxin monotherapy and polymyxin-based combination therapy for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) infections.
METHODS: We conducted searches on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Collaborative database for both observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing polymyxin monotherapy with polymyxin-based combination therapy in patients with CR-KP infection. The primary outcome was mortality. We divided all included studies into several groups according to different combination-combination and different infection types. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for outcome analysis.
RESULTS: Ten studies with 481 patients were included. Polymyxin monotherapy was associated with higher mortality than polymyxin-based combination therapy in treatment of CR-KP bloodstream infections (BSI) (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.27, P = 0.01) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)/hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.15-12.71, P = 0.03). In subgroup analysis of different combinations, mortality was significantly higher with polymyxin monotherapy compared with combination therapy with tigecycline (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05-3.37, P = 0.03), or with cabapenem (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.25-7.74, P = 0.01), but no differences were found in combinations with aminoglycosides (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.72-2.29, P = 0.38). Three-drug combination therapy including polymyxin was also associated with significant survival benefit (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.60-9.32, P = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Polymyxin-based combination therapy provides significant survival benefit in treatment of CR-KP, which appears to be more pronounced when a carbapenem or tigecycline is included in the regimen.