Population pharmacokinetic analysis for a single 1,200-milligram dose of oritavancin using data from two pivotal phase 3 clinical trials.

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Population pharmacokinetic analysis for a single 1,200-milligram dose of oritavancin using data from two pivotal phase 3 clinical trials.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jun;59(6):3365-72

Authors: Rubino CM, Bhavnani SM, Moeck G, Bellibas SE, Ambrose PG

Abstract
Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Here we describe oritavancin population pharmacokinetics and the impact of patient-specific covariates on drug exposure variability. Concentration-time data were analyzed from two phase 3 clinical trials, SOLO I and SOLO II, in which oritavancin was administered as a single 1,200-mg dose to patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. A total of 1,337 drug concentrations from 297 patients (90% of whom had 4 or 5 pharmacokinetic samples) were available for analysis. A previously derived population model based on data from 12 phase 1, 2, and 3 oritavancin studies was applied to the SOLO data set. Alterations to the structural model were made, as necessary, based on model fit. Analyses utilized Monte Carlo parametric expectation maximization (S-ADAPT 1.5.6). The previous population pharmacokinetic model fit the data well (r(2) = 0.972), and population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with acceptable precision and lack of bias. Covariate evaluations revealed statistically significant relationships between central compartment volume and age and between clearance and height; however, these relationships did not indicate a clinically relevant impact on oritavancin exposure over the range of age and height observed in the SOLO studies. The mean (coefficient of variation [CV]) area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 72 h (AUC0-72) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were 1,530 (36.9%) μg · h/ml and 138 (23%) μg/ml, respectively. The mean (CV) half-life at alpha phase (t1/2α), t1/2β, and t1/2γ were 2.29 (49.8%), 13.4 (10.5%), and 245 (14.9%) hours, respectively. These analyses are the first to describe oritavancin pharmacokinetics following a single 1,200-mg dose. Covariate analyses suggested that no dose adjustments are required for renal impairment (creatinine clearance, >29 ml/min), mild or moderate hepatic impairment, age, weight, gender, or diabetes status.

PMID: 25824211 [PubMed - in process]