Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Feb 8:AAC.02504-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02504-20. Online ahead of print.
Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic exhibiting efficacy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive-related infections. However, its population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) profile in Chinese critically ill children has not been characterized. Optimal dosing regimens should be established according to the PopPK/pharmacodynamic(PD) properties of linezolid in the specific population. This work aims to describe the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of linezolid, assess the factors affecting interpatient variability, and establish an optimized regimen for children in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A single-center, prospective, open-labeled PK study was performed. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to measure the plasma levels during linezolid treatment. PopPK analysis was conducted using Phoenix NLME software. Sixty-three critically ill pediatric patients were included. The data showed good fit for a two-compartment model with linear elimination. Body weight and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were the most significant covariates explaining variabilities in linezolid PK for the pediatric population. Therapeutic target was defined as the ratio of the area under drug plasma concentration-time curve over 24 h to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) of >80. Different dosing regimens were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation to determine the optimal dosage strategy for linezolid. Although the probability of target attainment (PTA) was high (>96%) for 10 mg/kg every 8 h at MIC≤1 mg/L, it was lower than 70% at MIC>1 mg/L. Thus, the dosing regimen required adjustment. When the dosing regimen was adjusted to 15 mg/kg every 6 h, the PTA increased from 63.6% to 94.6% at MIC=2 mg/L, thereby indicating higher treatment success. Children with AST of >40 U/L had significant higher AUC than those with AST of ≤40 U/L (205.45 vs. 159.96). Therefore, dosage adjustment was required according to the AST levels. The PopPK characteristics of linezolid in critically ill children were evaluated, and an optimal dosage regimen was constructed based on developmental PopPK/PD model and simulation. (This study has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry under no. ChiCTR1900021386.).