Posaconazole versus voriconazole as antifungal prophylaxis during induction therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

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Posaconazole versus voriconazole as antifungal prophylaxis during induction therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.

J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2018 Oct 14;:1078155218806975

Authors: Phillips K, Cirrone F, Ahuja T, Siegfried J, Papadopoulos J

Abstract
Objective Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing induction chemotherapy are at increased risk of invasive fungal infection due to prolonged, severe neutropenia. Due to this risk, national guidelines recommend invasive fungal infection prophylaxis in this population until the resolution of neutropenia. Although posaconazole has demonstrated superiority over fluconazole and itraconazole, there is limited evidence for voriconazole for invasive fungal infection prophylaxis in this population. Even less data are available comparing posaconazole and voriconazole directly. The study objective was to investigate the efficacy and safety of delayed-release posaconazole tablets versus voriconazole for primary invasive fungal infection prophylaxis. The primary outcome was rate of discontinuation of either agent. Secondary outcomes included specific rates of discontinuation due to adverse events and drug-drug interactions, rates of breakthrough invasive fungal infection, and 30-day and 100-day mortality rates. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to NYU Langone Health between 1 January 2014 and 31 August 2017 and initiated on invasive fungal infection prophylaxis during induction or reinduction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Results In total, 77 patients were included in the study: 43 using posaconazole delayed-release tablets and 34 using oral voriconazole. In the posaconazole group, 30% of patients (n = 13) discontinued therapy for any reason compared with 35% (n = 12) of patients in the voriconazole group (p = 0.64). A higher percentage of patients in the voriconazole group discontinued due to adverse events (6 patients, 18% vs. 1 patient, 2%, p = 0.04). Mortality rates at 30 and 100 days were similar between both groups. No breakthrough invasive fungal infections was noted in either group. Conclusion Overall, discontinuations for any reason were similar in patients taking both posaconazole delayed-release and oral voriconazole. Both posaconazole delayed-release tablets and oral voriconazole appear to be effective at preventing invasive fungal infection in acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome patients undergoing induction chemotherapy, although posaconazole may be more tolerable.

PMID: 30319061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]