Microb Drug Resist. 2021 Mar 3. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2020.0312. Online ahead of print.
Colistin is an, antibiotic used to treat carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex (CRABC) infection. However, colistin is well known for its nephrotoxicity. To accurately assess the effects of colistin on acute kidney injury (AKI) and 28-day mortality, we investigated the risk factors associated with AKI and mortality in patients with CRABC bacteremia who received or never received colistin. Patients with CRABC bacteremia aged ≥18 years were retrospectively identified for 3 years at five tertiary teaching hospitals. AKI was defined by using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. AKI developed in 103 (34.9%) of the 295 patients enrolled patients. AKI developed more frequently in patients who received colistin than in patients who did not (46.7% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that intravenous colistin usage was an independent risk factor for AKI in these patients. Nonfatal disease, catheter-related bloodstream infection, and administration of colistin were protective factors for 28-day mortality. However, the sequential organ failure assessment score and AKI were associated with poor outcomes. In conclusion, colistin may be a double-edged sword; although it causes AKI, it also reduces 28-day mortality in patients with CRABC bacteremia. Therefore, colistin administration as an appropriate antibiotic may improve CRABC bacteremia prognosis, despite its nephrotoxicity.