Preliminary study on the inhibitory effect of seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa extract on biofilm formation of Candida albicans cultured from the saliva of a smoker.
Authors: Mubarak Z, Humaira A, Gani BA, Muchlisin ZA
Background:Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus that infects the oral cavity. Increases in colony numbers of C. albicans can be caused by multiple factors, such as smoking, a weakened immune system, taking antibiotics and with immune-compromised individuals. Smoking can increase the virulence factor of C. albicans and make it stronger. One of the virulence factors of C. albicans is the biofilm it forms. The C. albicans biofilm makes it more tolerant to extracts of the seaweed Gracilariaverrucosa, which has antifungal activity. The objective of the study was to examine the ability of the G.verrucosa extracts to inhibit the formation of biofilm by C. albicans obtained from the saliva of smoker. Methods: A total of six concentrations of G. verrucosa (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) were tested in this study. The positive control was fluconazole 0.31 µg/ml C. albicans was taken from the saliva of one smoker in Faculty of Dentistry, Syiah Kuala University. The total amount of biofilm was assessed using an ELISA reader. The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance limit of p<0.05. Results: The seaweed extract has three bio-active compounds: steroids, terpenoid, and tannins. The results showed that the inhibitory activity of seaweed on C. albicans biofilm formation increases as its concentration increases. The highest effectiveness was recorded at a seaweed concentration of 100% at 48 h of exposure. Conclusions: The optimal inhibition of the C. albicans biofilm formation was recorded at the concentration of 100% G. verrucosa after 48 hours of exposure.
PMID: 30210788 [PubMed - in process]