Microorganisms. 2021 Feb 14;9(2):388. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9020388.
CrpP enzymes have been recently described as a novel ciprofloxacin-resistance mechanism. We investigated by whole genome sequencing the presence of crpP-genes and other mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance in MDR/XDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (n = 55) with both ceftolozane-tazobactam susceptible or resistant profiles recovered from intensive care unit patients during the STEP (Portugal) and SUPERIOR (Spain) surveillance studies. Ciprofloxacin resistance was associated with mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. Additionally, plasmid-mediated genes (qnrS2 and aac(6')-Ib-cr) were eventually detected. Ten chromosomal crpP-like genes contained in related pathogenicity genomic islands and 6 different CrpP (CrpP1-CrpP6) proteins were found in 65% (36/55) of the isolates. Dissemination of CrpP variants was observed among non-related clones of both countries, including the CC175 (Spain) high-risk clone and CC348 (Portugal) clone. Interestingly, 5 of 6 variants (CrpP1-CrpP5) carried missense mutations in an amino acid position (Gly7) previously defined as essential conferring ciprofloxacin resistance, and decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was only associated with the novel CrpP6 protein. In our collection, ciprofloxacin resistance was mainly due to chromosomal mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. However, crpP genes carrying mutations essential for protein function (G7, I26) and associated with a restored ciprofloxacin susceptibility were predominant. Despite the presence of crpP genes is not always associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, the risk of emergence of novel CrpP variants with a higher ability to affect quinolones is increasing. Furthermore, the spread of crpP genes in highly mobilizable genomic islands among related and non-related P. aeruginosa clones alert the dispersion of MDR pathogens in hospital settings.