Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from subclinical bovine mastitis in southern Xinjiang, China.

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Prevalence and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from subclinical bovine mastitis in southern Xinjiang, China.

J Dairy Sci. 2020 Jan 30;:

Authors: Ren Q, Liao G, Wu Z, Lv J, Chen W

Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing mastitis in dairy herds. The colonization of dairy cows and subsequent contamination of raw milk by S. aureus, especially strains exhibiting multidrug resistance and biofilm-forming and toxin-producing abilities, remains an important issue for both dairy farmers and public health. In this study, we investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm formation, and genetic diversity of S. aureus from subclinical bovine mastitis in dairy farms located in southern Xinjiang, China. Sixty-five isolates from 84 subclinical mastitic milk samples were identified as S. aureus. The resistance rates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin, quinupudin-dafupudin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol were 58.5, 44.6, 40.0, 18.5, 12.3, 10.8, 9.2, 6.2, 4.6, 4.6, and 1.5%, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to cefoxitin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and vancomycin. Isolates from farm A showed a significantly higher resistance rate to tetracycline (16.9%) than those from farm B (1.5%). The most frequently detected virulence factors were hla (96.9%, 63/65) and hlb (100.0%, 65/65). The percentage rates of the staphylococcal enterotoxin genes sea, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, and sej in S. aureus isolates were 4.6, 33.8, 27.7, 3.1, 41.5, 41.5, and 7.7%, respectively. The percentage rate of the sec gene in isolates from farm B (30.8%) was significantly higher than that of farm A (3.1%). The percentage rates of the tsst and pvl genes in S. aureus isolates were 26.2 and 40.0%. The percentage rate of the pvl gene in isolates from farm B (32.3%) was significantly higher than that of farm A (7.7%). The adhesion molecules fnbA, fnbB, clfA, clfB, and cna were detected in 21 (32.3%), 23 (35.4%), 65 (100.0%), 65 (100.0%), and 65 (100.0%) isolates, respectively. The percentage rates of the icaA, sarA, tcaR, ccp, luxS, and sigB genes in S. aureus isolates were 69.2, 100.0, 86.2, 95.4, 84.6, and 100.0%, respectively. The fnbB and icaA genes were more frequently detected in isolates from farm A (29.2 and 40.0%, respectively) than those from farm B (6.2 and 29.2%, respectively). The luxS gene was more often found in isolates from farm B (50.8%) than those from farm A (33.8%). Using the microplate method, 61.5, 26.2, and 10.8% of the isolates showed weak, moderate, and strong biofilm-forming abilities, respectively. Different clonal complex (CC) and spa-types were identified, including CC81, CC398, CC88, CC5405, and CC5406. Importantly, in this study we report for the first time 41 new sequence types (ST) among 44 distinct ST. These results indicated high genetic diversity of S. aureus involved in subclinical bovine mastitis in southern Xinjiang, China. The results also showed that S. aureus from subclinical bovine mastitis cases in southern Xinjiang, China, were mainly resistant to β-lactams, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Also, biofilm- and adhesion-related genes, which are increasingly known as important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, were detected at a high rate. This study could help identify predominant clones and provide surveillance measures to decrease or eliminate S. aureus contamination in raw milk of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

PMID: 32008777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]