Infect Drug Resist. 2021 Apr 13;14:1403-1413. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S301318. eCollection 2021.
PURPOSE: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading bacterial cause for acute gastroenteritis in children. With the increasing use of antibiotics worldwide, antibiotic resistance has become a global problem. However, data on NTS infections and changes in antibiotic resistance among children remain limited in China. We aimed to characterize the prevalence, clinical feature, serotype and the changes of antibiotic resistance of NTS in children in Chongqing.
METHODS: 501 hospitalized children with NTS infections (confirmed by positive NTS culture) in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2009 to December 2018 were included. The clinical data and drug sensitivity test results were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Antibiotic resistance in NTS infections was compared between 2009-2013 and 2014-2018.
RESULTS: A total of 501 isolates were detected. Most NTS infections occurred in children under three years old, which mainly occurred between July and October. The numbers of patients with diarrhea, fever, and vomiting were 472 (94.2%), 422 (84.2%) and 146 (29.1%), respectively. Serogroup B (67.5%) was the predominant serogroup isolates. And Salmonella Typhimurium was the most common serotype (79.2%). The study compared the drug resistance of NTS from 2009 to 2013 with that from 2014 to 2018. We found the drug resistance rates of NTS to cefazolin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and imipenem showed an upward trend. The drug resistance rates of NTS to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefepime and compound sulfamethoxazole decreased slightly, but still showed high drug resistance rates. And drug resistance rates of NTS to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime decreased significantly in the last ten years. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) isolates, were detected among 69 cases (13.7%) of 501 children with NTS infections.
CONCLUSION: The overall antibiotic resistance rates remained at a high level in Chongqing. Continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance in NTS and control measures such as avoiding unnecessary antibiotic therapy in general NTS gastroenteritis are important. For severe or invasive infections caused by NTS infection in Southwest China, the use of ceftazidime is recommended until antibiotic sensitivity test results are available. And the choice of antibiotics should be based on the curative effect and the antibiotics sensitivity results.