Prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MRSA in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients in Barbados.

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Prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MRSA in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients in Barbados.

New Microbes New Infect. 2020 May;35:100659

Authors: Gittens-St Hilaire MV, Chase E, Alleyne D

Abstract
The epidemiology and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has not been investigated, as not much research or surveillance has been undertaken to identify and characterize the circulating MRSA strains in Barbados. Prevalence rates, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA infections in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients were investigated. A total of 293 isolates were included in the study, with 100 from the hospital and 193 from the public health laboratory. Isolates were collected over a period of 1 (2015-2016) and 3 years (2013-2016) respectively. MRSA was identified using standard microbiologic techniques and was further analysed by multiplex PCR for the presence of the spa, mec gene complex typing and PVL genes (lukS-PV and lukF-PV). A prevalence rate of 19.7% was calculated for those hospitalized. All hospital isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, rifampin, linezolid and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), whilst 82% were sensitive to clindamycin. The PVL gene was detected in 76% of hospital isolates. In the community isolates, resistance was observed in erythromycin (100%), ciprofloxacin (97.4%), clindamycin (13%) and cotrimoxazole (5.7%). There was no resistance to vancomycin. The PVL gene was detected in 97.9% of the isolates, the mecA gene in only 2.1% and the mecC gene in 0%. Most MRSA isolates were community acquired in both settings, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile was similar, suggesting transmission of community-associated MRSA into the hospital environment. Further harmonization of antimicrobial policy for the treatment of MRSA (and by extension other pathogens) should be implemented to quell ongoing transmission. We found that 93.4% of MRSA in Barbados treated in the primary healthcare system were sensitive to cotrimoxazole. By typing MRSA isolates and drawing interferences on transmission on the basis of genetic relatedness, transmission pathways may be tracked. Further studies must be performed for this high level of comprehensiveness so that with the surveillance of MRSA, effective strategies may be developed to prevent or limit transmission.

PMID: 32257222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]