Infect Drug Resist. 2021 Jun 24;14:2369-2378. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S312231. eCollection 2021.
PURPOSE: This study aimed at identifying the main antimicrobial resistance of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) pathogens in a Romanian infectious diseases hospital. This antimicrobial resistance is a global threat, having high rates of multidrug resistance and limited treatment options.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study (2016-2020) assessed the antimicrobial resistance of ESKAPE pathogens isolated from the patient's biological samples. The microbiological diagnosis was performed by classical culture methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility analysis used the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method and the method of minimum inhibiting concentration with the automated Vitek, according to the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) standards.
RESULTS: Included in this study were 4293 bacterial isolates: 67% Gram-negative bacilli, 31% Gram-positive cocci and 2% other morphotinctorial bacteria. ESKAPE pathogens were found in 97% of the bacterial isolates strains; E. coli (38.26%) and Staphylococcus aureus (26%) were the most prevalent. Most bacterial strains were isolated from urine cultures (45.6%), skin and soft tissue secretions/collections (35.9%) and also blood cultures (4.2%). Increased antimicrobial resistance was observed for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)s, extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing (ESBL) Enterobacterales, carbapenem-resistant (CR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. No vancomycin resistance was found for Enterococcus faecium. The highest prevalence rates of multidrug resistance were found in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (86.6%), Acinetobacter baumannii (36.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (24.4%).
CONCLUSION: ESKAPE pathogens are frequently isolated in the infectious diseases hospital, with main antimicrobial resistance: ESBL, MRSA and CR. The local antimicrobial resistance pattern is essential in updating the local protocols and for appropriately prescribing antibiotics. Streamlining microbiological diagnosis and aligning with the European standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are necessary steps in harmonizing the regional network for good antimicrobial resistance control practices.