Prevalence of Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Among Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Infect Drug Resist. 2021 Apr 15;14:1441-1454. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S298176. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is caused by colonization and growth of microorganisms within the urinary system. Diabetic patients are more prone to bacterial UTI due to impaired host defense and high glucose concentration in urine. Surveillance of uropathogens and their antibiogram is a key to patient management.

METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to July, 2018. Urine samples were collected for culture and identification based on the standard protocol. An antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) was done for all isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.2.1 and exported to the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 20.

RESULTS: Out of 225 participants, significant bacteriuria was reported in 9.8% of the cultures. Five species of bacteria were isolated and E. coli (63.6%) was the leading uropathogen, followed by K. pneumoniae (13.6%). Duration of diabetes, previous history of UTIs and symptomatic UTI were found to be strongly associated with significant bacteriuria. Gram-negative bacterial isolates showed high sensitivity to nitrofurantoin and meropenem (100%). In contrast, a high level of resistance to ampicillin, doxycycline and cefuroxime (100%) and to amoxicillin-clavulanate (94.4%) was observed. Gram-positive bacteria showed high level of resistance to penicillin (100%). Multiple-drug resistance (MDR) was high for Gram-negative bacteria (100%).

CONCLUSION: Previous history of UTIs and duration of diabetes were found to be important factors that increase the prevalence of UTI among diabetes patients. This study also showed a high prevalence of drug resistance to doxycycline, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime and penicillin for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Since therapeutic selection for empirical treatment and management should be based on knowledge of the local bacterial profile and antimicrobial response, we suggest physicians take this high resistance profile in to consideration when prescribing antimicrobials against the pathogens in question.

PMID:33883912 | PMC:PMC8055279 | DOI:10.2147/IDR.S298176