Biomed Res Int. 2021 Jun 8;2021:9958294. doi: 10.1155/2021/9958294. eCollection 2021.
The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria which is attributable to extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production of CTX-M types is an obvious problem worldwide. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of CTX-M β-lactamases producing multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients attending Bir Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and September 2019 at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, and Department of Microbiology, National College, Kathmandu, Nepal. A total of 5,690 different clinical specimens were subjected to cultural, microscopic, and biochemical analyses for the identification of the isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was done, and MDR isolates were selected and processed for further ESBL confirmation by the combination disks method. All confirmed ESBL isolates were screened for CTX-M type β-lactamases (bla CTX-M) by PCR. Of the total 345 isolates (227 Escherichia coli and 118 Klebsiella pneumoniae), 232 were MDR. All 232 (67.24%) MDR isolates were suspected as ESBL producers on the screening test. However, on the phenotypic test, 135 (58.18%) of total MDR bacteria were confirmed as ESBL producers with the highest proportion in K. pneumoniae (59.37%). The major source of ESBL producers was urine. ESBL producing isolates were mostly identified from outpatients and patients belonging to age group 41-60. Gentamicin was found to be effective against ESBL producers. The prevalence of bla CTX-M was (89.62%) with the highest frequency for E. coli (93.81%). High prevalence of ESBL of CTX-M types among MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae was detected from clinical specimens of patients in Bir Hospital. This study warrants the need for the judicious use of antibiotics as well as emphasize the use of modern diagnostic tools for the early detection of MDR and ESBL producers to curb the emergence and spread of MDR and ESBL producing bacteria in the clinical settings of Nepal.