Iran J Microbiol. 2021 Jun;13(3):303-311. doi: 10.18502/ijm.v13i3.6392.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carbapenems have been the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenemase (bla VIM and bla IMP ) producing isolates among Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,151 clinical samples were collected from the patients visiting Annapurna Neurological Institute and Allied Science and Annapurna Research Centre, Kathmandu, between June 2017 and January 2018. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) was performed on the Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The modified Hodge test (MHT) was performed on the carbapenem-resistant isolates to confirm carbapenemase production. DNA was extracted and then screened for bla VIM and bla IMP genes by multiplex PCR.
RESULTS: Of the total 1,151 clinical samples, 253 (22.0%) showed positive growth. Of them, 226 (89.3%) were identified as Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Among the 226 isolates, 106 (46.9%) were multidrug-resistant. Out of the 106, 97 (91.5%) isolates showed resistance to at least one of the carbapenem used. Among the 97 carbapenem-resistant isolates, 67 (69.1%) showed the modified Hodge test (MHT) positive results. bla VIM and bla IMP were detected in 40 and 38 isolates respectively using multiplex PCR assay.
CONCLUSION: This study determined a high prevalence of MDR and carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii as detected by the presence of bla VIM and bla IMP genes. This study recommends the use of rapid and advanced diagnostic tools along with conventional phenotypic detection methods in the clinical settings for early detection and management of drug-resistant pathogens to improve treatment strategies.