Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2020 Nov 25;23(11):1028-1031. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200812-00478.
Most abdominal infections are mixed infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic infections are characterized by rancid secretions or abscess formation. Early implementation of source control is the key in the treatment of abdominal anaerobic infections. Damage control should be followed as one of the principles of surgical treatment. As the in vitro isolation and culture of anaerobic bacteria as well as its drug sensitivity test are time-consuming and sometimes inaccurate, the treatment of anaerobic bacteria infection is mostly empirical. Anti-infective therapy should be employed once anaerobic bacteria infection is confirmed. Ertapenem, Mosifloxacin, and Cefoperazone-sulbactam can be used for first-line monotherapy, while combination therapy can use second- or third-generation Cephalosporin, Quinolones plus Nitroimidazoles. Nutritional support and anti-shock treatment should not be neglected when implementing surgical control of infection source and antimicrobial therapy. Considering the increasing drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria, and the higher drug resistance rate in China as compared to western countries, the choice of antibiotics should be made rationally and based on epidemiological characteristics of anaerobic bacteria in different regions.