Prophylactic fluconazole in very low birth weight infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit: randomized controlled trial.

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Prophylactic fluconazole in very low birth weight infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit: randomized controlled trial.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29(4):624-8

Authors: Kirpal H, Gathwala G, Chaudhary U, Sharma D

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on invasive fungal infection (IFI) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).
METHODS: VLBW infants receiving antibiotics for more than 3 days were randomized to receive either fluconazole (6 mg/kg) or placebo, every other day for 7 days followed by everyday till day 28 or discharge whichever was earlier. The primary outcome was IFI, and secondary outcome was fungal attributable mortality and all-cause mortality.
RESULTS: The incidence of IFI was significantly lower (21%) in the fluconazole group compared to the control group (43.2%, 95%CI 0.09-0.37, p < 0.05). The ARR (absolute risk reduction) was 22.2% and the NNT (number needed to treat) was 5. Fungal attributable mortality was also lower in the fluconazole group (2.6% versus 18.9%, 95%CI 0.003-0.52, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: In VLBW neonates on the NICU, use of fluconazole prophylaxis decreases IFI and fungal attributable mortality.

PMID: 25708488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]