Reactive oxygen mediated apoptosis as a therapeutic approach against opportunistic Candida albicans

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2021;125:25-49. doi: 10.1016/bs.apcsb.2020.12.004. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

ABSTRACT

Candida albicans are polymorphic fungal species commonly occurs in a symbiotic association with the host's usual microflora. Certain specific changes in its usual microenvironment can lead to diseases ranging from external mucosal to severally lethal systemic infections like invasive candidiasis hospital-acquired fatal infection caused by different species of Candida. The patient acquired with this infection has a high mortality and morbidity rate, ranging from 40% to 60%. This is an ill-posed problem by its very nature. Hence, early diagnosis and management is a crucial part. Antifungal drug resistance against the first and second generation of antifungal drugs has made it difficult to treat such fatal diseases. After a few dormant years, recently, there has been a rapid turnover of identifying novel drugs with low toxicity to limit the problem of drug resistance. After an initial overview of related work, we examine specific prior work on how a change in oxidative stress can facilitate apoptosis in C. albicans. Subsequently, it was investigated that Candida spp. suppresses the production of ROS mediated host defense system. Here, we have reviewed possibly all the small molecule inhibitors, natural products, antimicrobial peptide, and some naturally derived semi-synthetic compounds which are known to influence oxidative stress, to generate a proper apoptotic response in C. albicans and thus might be a novel therapeutic approach to augment the current treatment options.

PMID:33931141 | DOI:10.1016/bs.apcsb.2020.12.004