Recent advances in understanding and managing infectious diseases in solid organ transplant recipients.
Authors: Aguilar C, Husain S, Lortholary O
Background: Undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT) exposes the recipient to various infectious risks, including possible transmission of pathogen by the transplanted organ, post-surgical infections, reactivation of latent pathogens, or novel infections. Recent advances: In the last few years, the emergence of Zika virus has raised concerns in the transplant community. Few cases have been described in SOT patients, and these were associated mainly with moderate disease and favorable outcome; the notable exception is a recent case of fatal meningo-encephalopathy in a heart transplant recipient. Because of the advances in treating hepatitis C, several teams recently started to use organs from hepatitis C-positive donors. The worldwide increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens, as well as the increasing incidence of Clostridioidesdifficile infection, is of particular concern in SOT patients. In the field of mycology, the main recent therapeutic advance is the availability of isavuconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. This drug has the advantage of minimal interaction with calcineurin inhibitors. Regarding the viral reactivations occurring after transplant, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is still a significant issue in SOT patients. The management of resistant CMV remains particularly difficult. The approval of letermovir, albeit in bone marrow transplantation, and the therapeutic trial of maribavir bring a ray of hope. Another advancement in management of post-transplant infections is the development of in vitro tests evaluating pathogen-specific immune response, such as immunodiagnostics for CMV and, more recently, tests for monitoring immunity against BK virus. Conclusion: The increasing number of organ transplantations, the use of newer immunosuppressive drugs, and high-risk donors continue to define the landscape of transplant infectious diseases in the current era.
PMID: 29899970 [PubMed]