Recent molecules in the treatment of severe infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Feb 17:1-9. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1874918. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The widespread increase in resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacterales currently represents one of the main threats to human health worldwide. The primary mechanisms of resistance are the production of β-lactamase enzymes that are able to hydrolyze β-lactams. Areas covered: we summarize the most recent advances regarding the main characteristics and spectrum of activity of new available antibiotics and strategies for the treatment of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales infections. Expert opinion: ESBL-producing strains are recognized as a worldwide challenge in the treatment of both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Data from the literature point out the high mortality associated with severe infections due to ESBL strains, especially in patients who developed severe sepsis or septic shock, together with the importance of the source of infection and indicators of severity, as determinants of the patient's outcome. Carbapenems are currently considered the first-line therapy, although the diffusion of resistant strains is an evolving problem and is mandatory the introduction in clinical practice of new drug regimens and treatment strategies, based on clinical data, local epidemiology, and microbiology. As a possible carbapenem-sparing strategy, ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam appear the best-available carbapenem-sparing therapies. The definitive role of new drugs should be definitively assessed.

PMID:33596162 | DOI:10.1080/14787210.2021.1874918