Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 1:1-8. doi: 10.1007/s10096-021-04234-1. Online ahead of print.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) application three times daily (t.i.d.) compared to the standard four times daily (q.i.d.). Retrospective equivalence (combined non-inferiority and non-superiority design) study with a before-and-after design on a tertiary ICU in which the SDD frequency was reduced from q.i.d. to t.i.d. All patients with ICU admissions ≥72h and with ≥2 surveillance cultures collected on different dates were included in this study. We compared successful decontamination of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Furthermore, time to decontamination, ICU-acquired GNB bacteraemia and 28-day mortality were compared between the two groups. In total 1958 ICU admissions (1236 q.i.d., 722 t.i.d). Decontamination was achieved during the first week of admission in 77% and 76% of patients receiving SDD q.i.d and t.i.d., respectively. Successful decontamination within 14 days (without consecutive acquisition of Gram-negative bacteria) was achieved in 69.3% of the admissions with q.i.d. versus 66.8% in t.i.d. SDD (p-value = 0.2519). The proportions of successful decontamination of GNB were equivalent in both groups (-0.025, 98% CI: -0.087; 0.037). There was no significant difference in time to decontamination between the two regimens (log-rank test p-value = 0.55). Incidence (episodes/1000 days) of ICU-acquired GNB bacteraemia was 0.9 in both groups, and OR for death at day 28 in the t.i.d. group compared to the q.i.d. group was 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.21). This study shows that a t.i.d. application regimen achieves similar outcomes to the standard q.i.d. regime, for both microbiological and clinical outcome measures.