Relationship between ceftolozane-tazobactam exposure and selection for Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance in a hollow-fiber infection model.

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Relationship between ceftolozane-tazobactam exposure and selection for Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance in a hollow-fiber infection model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Oct;58(10):6024-31

Authors: VanScoy BD, Mendes RE, Castanheira M, McCauley J, Bhavnani SM, Jones RN, Friedrich LV, Steenbergen JN, Ambrose PG

Abstract
It is important to understand the relationship between antibiotic exposure and the selection of drug resistance in the context of therapy exposure. We sought to identify the ceftolozane-tazobactam exposure necessary to prevent the amplification of drug-resistant bacterial subpopulations in a hollow-fiber infection model. Two Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge isolates were selected for study, a wild-type ATCC strain (ceftolozane-tazobactam MIC, 0.5 mg/liter) and a clinical isolate (ceftolozane-tazobactam MIC, 4 mg/liter). The experiment duration was 10 days, and the ceftolozane-tazobactam dose ratio (2:1) and dosing interval (every 8 h) were selected to approximate those expected to be used clinically. The studied ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens ranged from 62.5/31.25 to 2,000/1,000 mg per dose in step fold dilutions. Negative-control arms included no treatment and tazobactam at 500 mg every 8 h. Positive-control arms included ceftolozane at 1 g every 8 h and piperacillin-tazobactam dosed at 4.5 g every 6 h. For the wild-type ATCC strain, resistance was not selected by any ceftolozane-tazobactam regimen evaluated. For the clinical isolate, an inverted-U-shaped function best described the relationship between the amplification of a drug-resistant subpopulation and drug exposure. The least (62.5/31.25 mg) and most (2,000/1,000 mg) intensive ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens did not select for drug resistance. Drug resistance selection was observed with intermediately intensive dosing regimens (125/62.5 through 1,000/500 mg). For the intermediately intensive ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens, the duration until the selection for drug resistance increased with dose regimen intensity. These data support the selection of ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens that minimize the potential for on-therapy drug resistance selection.

PMID: 25070105 [PubMed - in process]