Infect Dis Rep. 2021 Sep 6;13(3):821-834. doi: 10.3390/idr13030074.
Tuberculosis disease is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is estimated that 10 million people have developed tuberculosis disease globally, leading to 1.4 million deaths in 2019. Treatment of tuberculosis has been especially challenging due to the rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensive drug-resistant (XDR-TB) tuberculosis. In addition to drug-resistant genotypes, the standard treatment of tuberculosis by first-line agents is also challenging due to toxicity and costs. In the last four decades, there have only been two new anti-tuberculosis agents-bedaquiline and delamanid. Therefore, shorter, safer, and more cost-effective therapies are needed to adequately treat tuberculosis. In this review, we explore various adjuvants such as glutathione, everolimus, vitamin D, steroid, aspirin, statin, and metformin and their usefulness in reducing the burden of tuberculosis. Glutathione, everolimus, aspirin, and metformin showed the most promise in alleviating the burden of tuberculosis. Despite their potential, more clinical trials are needed to unequivocally establish the effectiveness of these adjuvants as future clinical therapies. Methods: The journals for this review were selected by conducting a search via PubMed, Google Scholar, and The Lancet. Our first search included keywords such as "tuberculosis" and "adjuvant therapy." From the search, we made a list of adjuvants associated with tuberculosis, and this helped guide us with our second online database search. Using the same three online databases, we searched "tuberculosis" and "respective therapy." The adjuvants included in the paper were selected based on the availability of sufficient research and support between the therapy and tuberculosis. Adjuvants with minimal research support were excluded. There were no specific search criteria regarding the timing of publication, with our citations ranging between 1979 to 2021.