Microorganisms. 2021 Jun 3;9(6):1210. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9061210.
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) bacterial infections in heart transplant (HT) patients within three months after surgery and its impact on patient outcome. (2) Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical, hemato-chemical, imaging, treatment and outcome data from 47 heart transplant recipients from January 2016 to December 2018. MDR/XDR infections were compared to non-MDR/XDR and noninfected patients. (3) Results: Most participants were males, median age 51 years: 35 (74.5%) developed an infection after HT; 14 (29.8%) were MDR/XDR infections. Prolonged hospital stay before HT correlated to MDR/XDR infection (p < 0.001). Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at sampling day was higher in MDR/XDR (p = 0.027). MDR/XDR were mostly blood-stream (BSI) (p = 0.043) and skin-soft tissue (SSTI) (p = 0.047) infections. Gram-negative infections were the most frequent, specifically carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy duration for MDR/XDR infections was longer (p = 0.057), eradication rate lower (p = 0.083) and hospital stay longer (p = 0.005) but not associated with a worse outcome. (4) Conclusions: MDR/XDR infections affect compromised HT recipients with a history of prolonged hospitalization, causing a lower rate of eradication and increased hospital stay. These frequently present as BSI and SSTI. We emphasize the need to prevent contamination of central venous catheters and the surgical site.