Risk Factors and Outcome of Multidrug-Resistant Infections after Heart Transplant: A Contemporary Single Center Experience

Microorganisms. 2021 Jun 3;9(6):1210. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9061210.


(1) Background: The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) bacterial infections in heart transplant (HT) patients within three months after surgery and its impact on patient outcome. (2) Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical, hemato-chemical, imaging, treatment and outcome data from 47 heart transplant recipients from January 2016 to December 2018. MDR/XDR infections were compared to non-MDR/XDR and noninfected patients. (3) Results: Most participants were males, median age 51 years: 35 (74.5%) developed an infection after HT; 14 (29.8%) were MDR/XDR infections. Prolonged hospital stay before HT correlated to MDR/XDR infection (p < 0.001). Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at sampling day was higher in MDR/XDR (p = 0.027). MDR/XDR were mostly blood-stream (BSI) (p = 0.043) and skin-soft tissue (SSTI) (p = 0.047) infections. Gram-negative infections were the most frequent, specifically carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy duration for MDR/XDR infections was longer (p = 0.057), eradication rate lower (p = 0.083) and hospital stay longer (p = 0.005) but not associated with a worse outcome. (4) Conclusions: MDR/XDR infections affect compromised HT recipients with a history of prolonged hospitalization, causing a lower rate of eradication and increased hospital stay. These frequently present as BSI and SSTI. We emphasize the need to prevent contamination of central venous catheters and the surgical site.

PMID:34205082 | DOI:10.3390/microorganisms9061210