BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 22;21(1):292. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-05967-2.
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) End TB strategy aims to reduce mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) to less than 5% by 2035. However, mortality due to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains particularly high. Globally, almost 20% of patients started on MDR-TB treatment die during the course of treatment every year. We set out to examine the risk factors for mortality among a cohort of patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in Uganda.
METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the national MDR-TB cohort. We defined cases as patients who died from any cause during the course of MDR-TB treatment. We selected two controls for each case from patients alive and on MDR-TB treatment at the time that the death occurred (incidence-density sampling). We matched the cases and controls on health facility at which they were receiving care. We performed conditional logistic regression to identify the risk factors for mortality.
RESULTS: Data from 198 patients (66 cases and 132 controls) started on MDR-TB treatment from January 1 to December 31, 2016, was analyzed for this study. Cases were similar to controls in age/sex distribution, occupation and history of TB treatment. However, cases were more likely to be HIV infected while controls were more likely to have attained secondary level education. On multivariate regression analysis, co-infection with HIV (aOR 1.9, 95% CI [1.1-4.92] p = 0.05); non-adherence to MDR-TB treatment (aOR 1.92, 95% CI [1.02-4.83] p = 0.04); age over 50 years (aOR 3.04, 95% CI [1.13-8.20] p = 0.03); and having no education (aOR 3.61, 95% CI [1.1-10.4] p = 0.03) were associated with MDR-TB mortality.
CONCLUSION: To mitigate MDR-TB mortality, attention must be paid to provision of social support particularly for older persons on MDR-TB treatment. In addition, interventions that support treatment adherence and promote early detection and management of TB among HIV infected persons should also be emphasized.