J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Sep 4:114589. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114589. Online ahead of print.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been utilized traditionally to cure various diseases like cold, cough, diarrhoea, nausea, asthma, vomiting, toothache, stomach upset, respiratory disorders, joint pain, and throat infection. It is also consumed as spices and ginger tea.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study was aimed to identify the phytocompounds of traditional medicinal plants of North-Western Himalaya that could inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump activity of Salmonella typhimurium and become sensitive to antibiotic killing at reduced dosage.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medicinal plant extracts were prepared using methanol, aqueous, and ethyl acetate and tested for efflux pump inhibitory activity of Salmonella typhimurium NKS70, NKS174, and NKS773 strains using Ethidium Bromide (EtBr)-agar cartwheel assay. Synergism was assessed by the agar well diffusion method and EPI activity by berberine uptake and EtBr efflux inhibition assays. Microdilution method and checkerboard assays were done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) respectively for a bioactive compound. To validate the phytocompound and efflux pump interaction, molecular docking with 6IE8 (RamA) and 6IE9 (RamR) targets was done using autoDock vina software. Toxicity prediction and drug-likeness were predicted by using ProTox-II and Molinspiration respectively.
RESULTS: Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of P. integerrima, O. sanctum, C. asiatica, M. charantia, Z. officinale, and W. somnifera in combination with ciprofloxacin and tetracycline showed synergistic antimicrobial activity with GIIs of 0.61-1.32 and GIIs 0.56-1.35 respectively. Methanolic extract of Z. officinal enhanced the antimicrobial potency of berberine (2 to 4-folds) and increased the EtBr accumulation. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation leads to the identification of lariciresinol in ethyl acetate fraction, which decreased the MIC by 2-to 4-folds. The ΣFIC values varied from 0.30 to 0.55 with tetracycline, that indicated synergistic/additive effects. Lariciresinol also showed a good binding affinity with 6IE8 (-7.4 kcal mol-1) and 6IE9 (-8.2 kcal mol-1), which is comparable to tetracycline and chenodeoxycholic acid. Lariciresinol followed Lipinski's rule of five.
CONCLUSION: The data suggest that lariciresinol from Z. officinale could be a potential efflux pump inhibitor that could lead to effective killing of drug resistant Salmonella typhimurium at lower MIC. Molecular docking confirmed the antibacterial EPI mechanism of lariciresinol in Salmonella typhimurium and confirmed to be safe for future use.