Eur J Pharm Sci. 2021 Mar 19:105814. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105814. Online ahead of print.
Biapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic. It is excreted predominantly through the kidney as unchanged forms. However, the molecular mechanism of renal excretion of biapenem and potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were still unknown. In the present study, the role of organic anion transporters (OAT) 1/3 and organic cation transporters (OCT) 2 in the renal excretion of biapenem, and the potential DDIs between biapenem and six clinical commonly prescribed antibiotics and antiviral drugs that acted as substrates or inhibitors of OAT3 were evaluated in vitro. Further, the effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of biapenem was explored in the rats. We observed that biapenem could not inhibit the transport activities of OAT1 or OCT2, while mildly inhibited OAT3 (IC50 >500 μM). Among the tested antibiotics and antiviral drugs, the relatively high DDI index values (maximal unbound plasma concentration over IC50, Imax,u/IC50) were found for piperacillin, linezolid and benzylpenicillin, which were 2.84, 1.7 and 0.62, respectively. Although probenecid had the highest DDI index (27.1) in vitro, no significant impact of it on the pharmacokinetics of biapenem was observed in the rats. Our results indicated that biapenem was primarily eliminated by the glomerular filtration, while OAT3-mediated renal tubular secretion was a minor route. Biapenem is not a clinically relevant substrate or inhibitor because of its low affinity to OAT3. According to current results, it would be safe to use biapenem with other antibiotics and antiviral drugs that acted as substrates or inhibitors of OAT3.