Infect Dis Ther. 2021 Jan 30. doi: 10.1007/s40121-021-00402-0. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic approved as a single- and two-dose regimen for adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by susceptible gram-positive organisms. We present nephrotoxicity rates for patients with ABSSSI who received dalbavancin in three pivotal clinical trials and compare the rates with vancomycin.
METHODS: In a phase 3b clinical trial (DUR001-303), patients were randomized to dalbavancin single-dose (1500 mg intravenous [IV]) or two-dose regimen (1000 mg IV on day 1, 500 mg IV on day 8). In two phase 3 clinical trials (DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2), patients were randomized to dalbavancin (two-dose regimen) or vancomycin 1 g (or 15 mg/kg) IV every 12 h for at least 3 days with an option to switch to orally administered linezolid 600 mg every 12 h for 10-14 days. Patients on dalbavancin with a creatinine clearance below 30 mL/min not on regular dialysis received a reduced dose of 1000 mg (single-dose arm) or 750 mg IV on day 1, 375 mg IV on day 8 (two-dose arm). Nephrotoxicity was defined as a 50% increase from baseline serum creatinine (SCr) or an absolute increase in SCr of 0.5 mg/dL at any time point. P values were obtained using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test.
RESULTS: In dalbavancin-treated patients, rates of nephrotoxicity were low. The safety population with available creatinine values included 1325/1347 patients on any regimen of dalbavancin, and 54/651 patients who received vancomycin intravenously for at least 10 days and were not switched to orally administered linezolid. Patients on any regimen of dalbavancin had a lower rate of nephrotoxicity compared with patients receiving vancomycin intravenously for at least 10 days (3.7% vs 9.3%, respectively; P = 0.039).
CONCLUSIONS: Nephrotoxicity rates were lower in patients on dalbavancin relative to vancomycin for at least 10 days. On the basis of this experience, dalbavancin may be less nephrotoxic than intravenously administered vancomycin.