J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2021 Sep 25:S1684-1182(21)00189-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2021.08.013. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the predominant cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), which is a problem in prisons and jails. We conducted this study to understand MRSA molecular characteristics among inmates with SSTIs, and we chose MRSA isolates from a community hospital as a comparison.
METHODS: A total of 219 MRSA isolates from three custodial facilities and 134 isolates from a community hospital in Taiwan were collected in the 2017 calendar year. MRSA isolates were investigated molecularly by staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type, mupirocin, and chlorhexidine genotypical resistance, and multi-locus sequence typing (ST).
RESULTS: Of the 219 MRSA isolates from custodial facilities, SCCmec IV was the most prevalent type (65.3%), followed by type VT (32.4%) and type V (1.8%). Regarding sequence types, ST59 (36.4%), 8 (35.3%), and 45 (17.9%) were the leading three predominant types out of 184 selected MRSA isolates, and ST45 MRSA was more prevalent in custodial facilities (p = 0.019). The antimicrobial resistance rates varied for different MRSA strains, with ST45 MRSA having the lowest rates of resistance to most antimicrobials. Overall, 91.5% of isolates carried mupA gene and 25.8% were positive for qacA/B gene, this was independent of the MRSA sequence types.
CONCLUSIONS: ST59, ST8, and ST45 MRSA are the leading three MRSA strains causing SSTIs in Taiwan, 2017, but the molecular distribution varied distinctly between the custodial facilities and hospital settings. The genotypical mupirocin resistance rate is quite high in this study. The frequency of chlorhexidine resistance gene is relatively low, especially in MRSA isolates from custodial facilities.