BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 25;20(1):542. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-05196-z.
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) can be used as an early predictor of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
METHODS: Ventilated neonatal patients admitted into the neonatology department between January 2017 and January 2018 were divided into VAP (n = 30) and non-VAP (n = 30) groups. Serum sTREM, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels were measured at 0, 24, 72, and 120 h after initiation of mechanical ventilation (MV). Correlations between blood biomarker concentrations and VAP occurrence were analyzed. Predictive factors for VAP were identified by logistic regression analysis and Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the predictive value of sTREM-1 and biomarker combinations for VAP was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
RESULTS: The serum sTREM-1 concentration was significantly higher in the VAP group than in the non-VAP group after 72 and 120 h of MV (72 h: 289.5 (179.6-427.0) vs 202.9 (154.8-279.6) pg/ml, P < 0.001; 120 h: 183.9 (119.8-232.1) vs 141.3 (99.8-179.1) pg/ml, P = 0.042). The area under the curve (AUC) for sTREM-1 at 72 h was 0.902 with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 77% for the optimal cut-off value of 165.05 pg/ml. Addition of PCT to sTERM-1 at 72 h further improved the predictive value, with this combination having an AUC of 0.971 (95% confidence interval: 0.938-1.000), sensitivity of 0.96, specificity of 0.88, and Youden index of 0.84.
CONCLUSION: sTREM-1 is a reliable predictor of VAP in neonates, and combined measurement of serum levels of sTREM-1 and PCT after 72 h of MV provided the most accurate prediction of VAP in neonatal patients.