Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2021 Mar 22;128:102078. doi: 10.1016/j.tube.2021.102078. Online ahead of print.
The biomarker significance of IL-35, chemokines (CXCL9 and CXCL10) and human beta-defensins (hBD2 and hBD3) was determined in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) of 105 Iraqi patients; 37 had active disease, 41 had multi-drug resistant (MDR) PTB and 27 had a relapse of TB. A control sample of 79 healthy persons was also included. Serum levels of markers were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Kruskal-Wallis test together with Dunn-Bonferroni post hoc test revealed significance differences between patients and controls in levels of IL-35, CXCL9, CXCL10 and hBD3, while hBD2 showed no significant difference. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that CXCL10 and hBD3 were the most significant markers in predicting TB, particularly active disease. Logistic regression analysis proposed the susceptibility role of CXCL10 in TB. Gender- and age-dependent variations were also observed. Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed different correlations between markers in each group of patients and controls. In conclusion, CXCL10 was up-regulated in serum of TB patients, while hBD3 showed down-regulated level. Both serum proteins are possible candidate biomarkers for evaluation of TB progression, particularly in active disease.