Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica in Poultry Shed Environments Observed by Intensive Longitudinal Environmental Sampling.

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Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica in Poultry Shed Environments Observed by Intensive Longitudinal Environmental Sampling.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2019 07 15;85(14):

Authors: Crabb HK, Allen JL, Devlin JM, Wilks CR, Gilkerson JR

Abstract
Detection of salmonellae within poultry environments is an important component of many food safety programs, but sampling approaches vary greatly and may not enable the detection of salmonellae when bacteria are present at a low prevalence or concentration. Intensive longitudinal sampling within caged sheds enabled us to undertake a longitudinal analysis of the spatial distribution of salmonellae in caged shed environments. Both the number of samples collected and location of sample collection within a poultry shed were important to ensure the best chance of detecting Salmonella spp. Differences in the within-shed spatial distribution of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium [χ2(27, 1,538) = 54.4; P < 0.001] and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Infantis [χ2(27, 1,538) = 79.8; P < 0.0001] were identified. More than one Salmonella enterica serovar was detected in each shed on the same sampling occasion; 5% of all samples contained more than one serovar. Samples collected on the north side of the shed (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.68), on the sheltered side of the shed (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.26-2.89), and during winter (OR, 48.41; 95% CI, 23.56-104.19) were more likely to be positive for salmonellae. The within-shed differences observed in the both the sample prevalence and spatial location of the serovar detected indicate that there are important shed microenvironmental factors that influence the survival and/or distribution of salmonellae. These factors should be taken into consideration when environmental surveillance is undertaken for salmonellae in flocks housed in cage sheds.IMPORTANCE Routine epidemiological surveillance for salmonellae in poultry relies initially on environmental sampling. Intensive, spatially homogenous sampling, as conducted within this study, confirmed that the sampling methodology conducted within a poultry environment is a nontrivial part of sampling design. The frequency of sampling is especially important when the prevalence of Salmonella spp. is low. These factors must be taken into consideration in the design of studies for the detection of salmonellae in poultry sheds.

PMID: 31053585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]