Species Distribution, Azole Resistance and Related Molecular Mechanisms in Invasive Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates: Increase of Fluconazole Resistance in 21 Years

Mycoses. 2021 May 2. doi: 10.1111/myc.13296. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis complex consists of three species, the prevalence and geographical distribution of which might vary. Increasing rates of fluconazole resistance among C. parapsilosis complex were reported from various centers.

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to identify invasive C. parapsilosis complex strains up to species level, explore rates and molecular mechanisms of azole resistance, and analyse temporal changes at a single center.

METHODS: Isolates from blood cultures from 1997 to 2017 were included. Species were identified using RFLP of the SADH gene and confirmed with ITS sequencing when needed. In vitro susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole was tested and evaluated using EUCAST guidelines. Sequences of ERG11 and MRR1 genes were analyzed for fluconazole non-susceptible isolates.

RESULTS: A total of 283 isolates from 181 patients were tested for azole susceptibility. All were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, except one C. orthopsilosis. All three azoles were effective against 213 of the isolates from 135 patients, including one C. orthopsilosis. Fluconazole resistance was 13.3% (24/181 patients). While the first fluconazole resistant isolates were detected in 2004, increase was evident after 2011. In ERG11, Y132F mutation was the most common among fluconazole non-susceptible isolates (71.7%), followed by G458S (10.9%) and D421N (4.3%). In MRR1, R405K (56.5%) and G927C (8.7%) were detected. However, association of these mutations to azole resistance are yet to be investigated.

CONCLUSIONS: Rising azole resistance rates in C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates particularly after 2011 were of concern. The well-known Y132F mutation was the predominant mechanism of azole resistance while accompanied with other genetic mutations.

PMID:33934400 | DOI:10.1111/myc.13296