Infect Dis Ther. 2021 Mar 11. doi: 10.1007/s40121-021-00422-w. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous fungal ascites infection is a rare but devastating complication of cirrhosis. We aimed to analyse the clinical features, short-term mortality, and treatment of spontaneous fungal ascites infection in patients with cirrhosis.
METHODS: We retrospectively studied ten patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous fungal ascites infections, and the clinical characteristics and outcomes were obtained.
RESULT: The patients' mean age was 64 ± 13 years, and seven of the ten patients were men. Cirrhosis was primarily caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungus isolated from the ascites fluid. Three of the ten patients fulfilled the criteria of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) at baseline, and three of the remaining seven patients developed ACLF during hospitalisation. Of the ten patients, six had acute kidney injury (AKI), and six died within 28 days. Three patients did not receive antifungal treatment during hospitalisation because they died undiagnosed because of delays in the reporting of laboratory results.
CONCLUSION: Patients with spontaneous fungal ascites infection had high incidence of AKI and 28-day mortality. Fungal cultures of ascitic fluid from patients with cirrhosis should be recommended to ensure optimal clinical management, especially in patients with severe liver disease and who received inadequate empirical antibacterial therapy. Hence, future studies should focus on the early diagnosis of fungal infection in patients with cirrhosis.