Transpl Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 30:e13538. doi: 10.1111/tid.13538. Online ahead of print.
Infections following orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) result in significant morbidity and mortality, warranting careful consideration of risks associated with antibiotic overuse and benefits of infection prevention. In the absence of specific guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in pediatric OLT, we developed a standardized approach to post-operative (post-op) antimicrobial therapy including 48 hours of antibiotics, no vancomycin for post-op fever within the first 48 hours, and caspofungin only for certain situations. The goal was to reduce antimicrobial utilization and adverse outcomes associated with longer duration of and broader treatment while maintaining good outcomes. The impact of this standardization on antimicrobial utilization and clinical outcomes at the largest pediatric liver transplant center in the United States is described. All individuals receiving an OLT from 1/1/17-9/30/17 (N = 38) and 3/14/18-12/13/18 (N = 27) were included in the pre-intervention (PreI) and post-intervention (PostI) groups, respectively. The intervention resulted in a significant reduction in individuals receiving post-op broad-spectrum gram-negative antibiotics for >48 hours (76% PreI vs 44% PostI OLT recipients, P = .01) and post-op vancomycin use (50% PreI, vs 7.4% PostI, P < .001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for post-op fever, positive pre-/post-operative cultures, receipt of massive transfusion, or hospital length of stay. In conclusion, following the implementation of a standardized approach to post-op prophylaxis, antimicrobial exposure was significantly reduced without affecting OLT recipient outcomes.